Chronic Osteomyelitis May Increase Risk for Fibromyalgia

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What causes osteomyelitis?

A rare but severe condition called osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. There are a lot of ways that can infect your bones: Infection that exists in one part of the body may extend through the bloodstream into the bone, or any open fracture or surgery may expose the bone to infection.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of staph bacteria that causes osteomyelitis in the majority cases. Certain chronic conditions like diabetes may increase your risk for osteomyelitis. Although in different ways but this condition affects both children and adults. Some conditions and behaviors that deteriorate the immune system increase a person’s risk for osteomyelitis. Hip and knee replacements surgeries also add to the chance of bone infection.

Osteomyelitis most frequently occurs in the softer areas, called growth plates in children, at either end of the long bones of the arms and legs. Germs deep inside your body are carried by severe puncture wounds. If such an injury becomes infected, the germs can spread into a nearby bone. If you have broken a bone germs can enter the body so harshly that part of it is sticking out through your skin.

Osteomyelitis in children and adults

Osteomyelitis is generally acute in children. Acute osteomyelitis is better than chronic osteomyelitis because it is easier to treat and comes on speadily. In children, osteomyelitis usually shows up in arm or leg bones. Osteomyelitis can be either acute or chronic in adults. People who are the patients of diabetes, HIV, or peripheral vascular disease are more liable to chronic osteomyelitis, which persists or it can recur, regardless of treatment. Osteomyelitis mainly affects an adult’s pelvis or vertebrae of the spine whether it is acute or chronic.

Symptoms

Acute and chronic osteomyelitis share very similar symptoms and include Tenderness, reddishness, and warmth in the area of the infection, lost range of motion, inflammation around the affected bone, Fever, bad temper, fatigue and Nausea.

Prevention

The finest way to avoid osteomyelitis is to keep things dirt free. If you or your child has a cut, especially a deep cut, wash it completely. Flush out any open wound under running water for five minutes, and then bandage it in sterile bandages. Make sure your doctor knows about your medical history if you have chronic osteomyelitis, so you can work mutually to keep the form under control. Pay close attention to your feet if you have diabetes and call your doctor at the first sign of infection. The sooner you treat osteomyelitis, the better. Early treatment in cases of acute osteomyelitis prevents the condition from becoming a chronic problem that requires continuous treatment. Getting osteomyelitis under control early provides the greatest chance for recovery, besides the pain and trouble of repeated infections

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Treatment

The initial step in treatment figuring out if a person has osteomyelitis . It’s also surprisingly difficult. Doctors rely on X-rays, blood tests, MRI, and bone scans to get a picture of what’s going on. To verify a diagnosis of osteomyelitis a bone biopsy is essential. This also aids in determining the type of organism, usually bacteria, causing the infection so the accurate medication can be given. Treatment focuses on preserving as much function as feasible and stopping infection in its tracks. Most people with osteomyelitis are treated with antibiotics, surgery, or both. Antibiotics frequently make it possible to evade surgery and help bring the infection in hand. People suffering from osteomyelitis generally get antibiotics for numerous weeks through an IV and then switch to a tablet form. Chronic osteomyelitis that is more serious needs surgery to eliminate the infected tissue and bone. Osteomyelitis surgery is required to stop the infection from scattering further or getting so bad that amputation is the only left over option.

Diagnosis

Blood tests may disclose high levels of white blood cells and other factors that may signify that your body is fighting an infection. Tests may disclose what germs are to hold responsible if your osteomyelitis was caused by an infection in the blood. To tell your doctor whether you do or do not have osteomyelitis, no blood test exists. Though, blood tests do give clues that your doctor uses to make a decision that what additional tests and measures you may need. X-rays can reveal damage to your bone. However, damage may not be visible until osteomyelitis has been present for several weeks.

Osteomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

A recent study suggests chronic osteomyelitis (COM) could be a risk factor for developing fibromyalgia (FM). As researchers continue to investigate the pathogenesis for FM, it has been shown that central or peripheral inflammation could trigger pain pathways in the brain (central sensitization), which could potentiate changes in the central nervous system (CNS), known as centralized pain.

According to investigators, this could lead to altered neuroendocrine function, varied neurotransmitter metabolism, and other factors that may enhance a patient’s risk for FM. In FM patients without traditional FM risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, sleep disorder, depression, and anxiety, the chronic inflammatory process is a possible risk factor for FM.

Therefore, we researched whether chronic osteomyelitis (COM), a disease characterized by chronic inflammation, enhances FM risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to link COM to an enhanced risk of FM development. The results imply that COM is a predictor of FM, suggesting that close follow-up for patients with COM is required to prevent FM, especially in younger populations. COM is associated with the augmented risk of developing FM, and rigorous treatments for COM patients might decrease the future risk of FM formation, especially in those with.

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Reference:

  • Chronic Osteomyelitis May Increase Risk for Fibromyalgia  By Thomas G. Ciccone via Practical Pain Management
  • Chen JH, Muo CH, Kao CH, et al. Increased risk of new-onset fibromyalgia among chronic osteomyelitis patients: Evidence from a Taiwan cohort study. J Pain. 2017;18(2):222-227.
  • Ablin J, Neumann L, Buskila D. Pathogenesis of fibromyalgia: a review. J Bone Spine. 2008;75:273-279.
  • Bradley LA. Pathophysiology of fibromyalgia. Am J Med. 2009;122:S22-S30.
  • Ji RR, Xu ZZ, Strichartz G, et al. Emerging roles of resolvins in the resolution of inflammation and pain. Trends Neurosci. 2011;34:599-609.
  • Rodriguez-Pintò I, Agmon-Levin N, Howard A, et al. Fibromyalgia and cytokines. Immunol Lett. 2014;161:200-203.
  • Mease PJ, Dundon K, Sarzi-Puttini P. Pharmacotherapy of fibromyalgia. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011;25:285-297

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